Examples: He is an interesting fellow.
I heard a crying baby.
Usually these adjectives are in front of the noun and can be changed thus:
He is an interesting fellow --> He is a fellow who is interesting.
Examples: swimming pool parking lot
These look like adjectives. However, they don't work in the same way:
A swimming pool --> A pool which is used for swimming.
C. Continuous Verb Tense
Examples: I am waiting for you.
I have been waiting for you for five minutes.
These -ing verbs always have the verb tense with them. Above, the first one is present progressive, the second one, present perfect progessive.
D. Gerund following a verb
Examples: I enjoy skiing.
I am looking forward to finishing my final exams.
These look like verbs but they act like nouns.
E. Gerunds as Subjects
Examples:Skiing is very expensive in Japan.
Having two dogs is a lot of work.
Notice that the two subjects have -ing and are gerunds but are singular.
F. Reduced Relative Clause
Example:The man talking to my sister is her boss.
In this example, the –ing talking really means who is talking…
G. Verbs of Perception
Example: I heard the birds singing and I watched the worms turning.
H. Participial Phrases
Examples: Listening to the songs on the radio, I began thinking of what the lyrics meant.
The example above has the same meaning as: While I was listening…
Having read that book, I thought perhaps of getting another.
The example above has the same meaning as: After I read that book, I thought perhaps of getting another.
Read the passages below and study the ing words:
Having already read that interesting book, I was looking forward to enjoying another by the same author. Reading such stunning literature is enlivening to be sure! However, the bookstore's parking is expensive, so I may have to order the thing online. And my friend working there is a dingaling and no help whatsoever!
Sailing on Okanagan Lake is enjoyed by many as a summer pastime. One man sailing* daily is my friend John. On awakening at dawn every summer morning, he heads towards the lake, listening to the birds chirping, watching the sun rising in the eastern sky, and generally enjoying being alive. However, upon arriving at the lake,he notices that often there is an absence of a wind blowing, so sailing becomes slow and tedious, even boring, for John. But when he’s out in a gusting breeze and crashing waves, his sailing speed increases to a rapid rate. Sailing far and wide on these days, John is in his element, even travelling as far as Penticton if the north wind is blowing a gale. On a sailing trip such as this, viewing the naturally wild Okanagan scenery is an interesting way to appreciate being in the area.
*should be 'who sails'